Before you start dividing, estimate the result to get a sense of the expected quotient. This can help you identify any glaring errors in your mental calculations.
Round the numbers involved in the division to make the calculation easier. For example, if you are dividing 347 by 6, you can round 347 to 350 and then divide by 6.
Break it down
Break down complex division problems into simpler steps. For example, if you need to divide 642 by 3, you can break it down into 600 divided by 3 and 42 divided by 3, and then add the results.
Use multiplication facts
Students who know the multiplication tables well can use them to simplify division. For example, if you are dividing by 9, check if the number is divisible by 3, and then apply the rule that if it is, it's also divisible by 9.
Divide by powers of 10
For division by powers of 10 (10, 100, 1000, etc.), you can simply move the decimal point to the left the same number of places as there are zeros. This is a quick way to mentally divide by powers of 10.
Adjust the quotient
If you make an estimation error or find the quotient is too large or too small, adjust your answer accordingly. For example, if you estimated that 400 divided by 7 is around 60 but find it's actually 57, adjust your mental answer to be closer to the correct result.
Use known multiples
If you are dividing by a number that you know is a multiple of another number, use that knowledge. For example, if you are dividing by 8, and you know 8 is a multiple of 2, check if the number is divisible by 2 first.
Practice mental math
The more you practice mental math, the better you'll become at performing calculations in your head. Regular practice helps improve your number sense and makes mental division easier over time.
Mental division worksheets for grade 4 students
We have several sets of worksheets for students to practice mental division, starting with division facts practice and ending with division with remainder.
Division facts practice: 1 - 10
We start the mental division practice with worksheets that divide by 1 to 10. All answers are whole numbers without remainders.
Division facts practice: 1 - 12
The next set of worksheets covers mental division up to 12.
Division facts worksheets with missing dividend or divisor
In these worksheets on dividing 1 - 12, the equations are either missing the dividend, the divisor or the quotient.
Practice dividing by 10 or 100
Students divide round numbers mentally by 10 or 100 in these worksheets.
Divide by whole tens or hundreds
Students divide in their heads by whole tens and whole hundreds in these worksheets.
Worksheets to divide whole tens or hundreds by 1-digit numbers
Students move onto practicing the division of whole tens or hundreds by 1-digit numbers, that is 2 to 9.
Single digit division with no remainder
These worksheets provide practice for dividing up to the number 1,000 by single digits.
Division with remainder from 1 - 100
In these worksheets, dividends up to 100 are divided by single digits.
Division with remainder where the divisor is a whole ten
Next, students divide by whole tens where the answers are expressed with remainders.
Division with remainder where the divisor is a whole hundred
Finally, these worksheets cover the division by whole hundreds where the answers are also expressed with remainders.
Mental division, like any skill, improves with practice. Start with simpler problems and gradually work your way up to more complex ones as you become more comfortable with the techniques.